Topic 1.1 Introduction to the particulate nature of matter
- Describe the three states of matter
- Understand the changes involved when there is a change in state
- Understand that compounds have different properties to the elements they are made from
- Understand how to balance chemical equations
- Understand how to use state symbols in chemical equations
- Describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures
- Understand the differences between homogenous and heterogenous mixtures
Topic 1.2 The mole concept
- Masses of atoms are compared on a scale relative to 12C and are expressed as relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative formula/molecular mass (Mr).
- Molar mass (M) has the units g mol-1.
- The empirical formula and molecular formula of a compound give the simplest ratio and the actual number of atoms present in a molecule respectively.
- The mole is a fixed number of particles and refers to the amount, n, of substance.
Topic 1.3 Reacting Masses and Volumes
- Reactants can be either limiting or excess.
- The experimental yield can be different from the theoretical yield.
- Avogadro’s law enables the mole ratio of reacting gases to be determined from volumes of the gases.
- The molar volume of an ideal gas is a constant at specified temperature and pressure.
- The molar concentration of a solution is determined by the amount of solute and the volume of solution.
- A standard solution is one of known concentration.